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Published Monthly by the American Electroplaters Society

Publication and Editorial Office
3040 Diversy Ave., Chicago
Vol. XIV, JUNE, 1927 No. 6


Well, we, the Editorial Staff and Publishing Committee, have now all graced the editorial page during the past 12 months and have tried to amuse you and interest you and bring to your attention the many things necessary to give you, the membership of our society, the fullest interpretation of the many things that go to make this great American Institution of Foreman Executives the most foremost of its kind.

If we have pleased you, we are happy and if not, we are sorry. We tried to merit your enthusiasm and if we have failed, as the fiscal year closes, we tried to fulfill our duties to you to the best of our limited ability and ask you to join us in our successes and failures to the advancement of our successors.

And in conclusion let us take for our motto this coming year the words we and us. The only co-operative way of expressing ourselves in our society’s progress for the purpose of trust in each other, whether from East, West, North or South, eliminating, as one member has stated in a talk we were privileged to hear, the half truths and get only whole truths, which will promulgate naught but success and prosperity for us all.



This is a paper which was presented at New York City, by Mr. Thomas A. Gardner, trustee, and read by President F. J. MacStoker of the New York Branch of the A. E. S., and being the very first paper presented by these two brothers in trade.. Since then the paper has been revised by T. A. Gardner after receiving advisement to do so by F. J. MacStoker, so that all could get these colors. These colors may not be new to all the brothers of the A. E. S., but to some of the brothers they are new.

We use these on expensive articles or if a sample is submitted, they will be of value, as through these solutions I have finished the following different colors, black, greens, browns, statuary, orange, purple, reds, and a very nice gray on silver. I am experimenting with these solutions to see if they cannot be brought up to use as commercially as our other bronzing solutions. So far my present employer has a sample board with twelve (12) different colors to show purchasers of lamps.

Presenting here the rules to follow:

First: Do not use too much chemicals. Reason I say this is because of following:

Waste of chemicals, and we don’t as far as I have seen from my experimenting receive a durable finish, it seems to be softer. I believe the reason for this is too much free sulphuric acid which has a tendency to soften and remove the color after one day’s being finished.

Use about on average to gallon of water, 9 oz. of chemicals. The manipulations of working is another thing we must follow.

Another factor to consider at all times is not to get in too much ferrous (iron) sulphate as it is a more active metal than the copper sulphate and it has the tendency to destroy, as far as my experimenting, the color, and leave the copper showing either in spots or all over article to be finished.

The following colors were produced with following solutions, but you can obtain several other colors from it, dark brown, light brown, green, and orange. To get dark brown, first acid copper plate article, brush with pumice and water then put through solution composed of

Copper sulphate 4 oz.
Potassium chlorate 1 1/2 oz.
Single nickel salts 22 oz.
Iron sulphate 1 oz.
Water 1 gal.

To get dark shades of brown, brush and run through formula given three times.

For lighter browns, cyanide copper plate for ten ( 10) to fifteen (15) minutes, brush and run through one or two times.

For greens do these colors on brass direct, the dark green is produced after brushing twice, light green once.

The following solution used gives browns, black, and statuary bronze color.

Copper sulphate 4 oz.
Potassium chlorate 1 oz.
Single nickel salts 1 1/2 oz.
Acetate of copper 1/4 oz..
Ammonium chloride 1 oz.
Hyposulphite of sodium 2 P oz.

For antique green colors from light to dark, on brass which is a very good finish with a smut of lighter greens in crevices. This is used mostly for brass articles where there is several high lights:

Hyposulphite of sodium 6 oz.
Single nickel salts 1 oz.

The following formula gives various shades of chocolate browns, dark to light, lavender, reds. Acid copper plate for dark chocolate brown, with brushing same as first. Lighter browns are produced after cyanide copper plating reds on brass or copper. Lavender color is produced after acid copper flashing. This is a formula I used to experiment with and is a very complicated one.

Sodium hydrate sticks 1/4 oz.
Copper sulphate 3 oz.
Hyposulphite of sodium 1 1/2 oz.
Ferrous, (Iron) sulphate 1/4 oz.
Lead acetate 1/2 oz.
Potassium chlorate 1 1/4 oz.

You will please notice that the weight of chemicals is an important factor and not so much as others advocate per gallon. First having 9 oz. of chemicals, second 8 1/2 oz., third, 8 3/4. I make this notation so it will show just the proper amount.

These colors must be seen to be appreciated for their beauty. I showed them on a board at New York Branch banquet and several brothers looked them over and asked for the formula, so let them have them and others if they care for same.

Hoping my humble services will do somebody a good turn, as through trying to help others is the motto of all the brothers of the A. E. S. throughout the different branches, we come to better progress for good of what we are striving to do, not holding it up yourself as it was in former years.


By L. Mertz
Indianapolis Branch

In the manufacture of carburetors there are many small parts used which have to be plated. A good many of these parts are made of steel for economy, others are made of steel and case hardened for wear, yet all have to be plated for appearance and protection against rust. Parts that are used on automobile carburetors have to be brass plated except fire apparatus carburetors which are all nickel plated including the large parts. All these parts that I am speaking of are not polished, just dead finished.

All motorcycle carburetors are nickel plated. These small parts as well as all others go through the factory on a production basis and have to be handled as quickly as possible.

In the Plating Department the time devoted to these parts is between 8:30 o’clock A. M. and noon, the rest of the day has to be devoted to the large work and still plating the run of work being such that by adopting this method production can be kept up with a minimum amount of help.

For equipment for plating these parts I have one nickel barrel of 90 lb. capacity, one oblique nickel barrel of 20 lb. capacity, and two oblique brass plating barrels of 20 lb. capacity each. In connection with running the 90 lb. nickel barrel I use a cleaning apparatus composed of cleaning tank, first rinse acid and final rinse tanks in line with plating barrel. A pan of work or approximately 90 lb. is emptied into barrel in cleaning tank and started to revolving. After revolving from six to eight minutes the barrel is raised by air and lowered into next tank (first rinse) for two or three revolutions then in the acid and then the final rinse, the same length of time. The revolving of the barrel in each tank is taken care of by a worm drive at side of tank.

After cleaning, the cleaning barrel is hoisted on to a rack above the plating barrel which is suspended on lower part of same rack and emptied into it.

The cleaning barrel is next taken back to cleaning tank to be ready for next load.

Plating barrel with work in it is then raised off of the rack and lowered into plating tank and started to rolling and current turned on. If the metal to be plated be brass it is given thirty minutes plate, if steel one hour (current density 150 amperes). When finished the plating barrel is raised on to the rack again to be emptied. The rack by the way is between plating tank and hot water tank. The hot water tank contains a perforated pan hinged to opposite end of hot water tank from plating barrel and above the sawdust shaker. When work is emptied from plating barrel it runs through a chute into pan in hot water tank. This pan is then raised from one end as the other end is hinged to hot water tank. As this pan is raised the water drains off back into tank and work slides down into sawdust shaker. This shaker is operated by air as is also all hoisting from one tank to another. After work is shaken through sawdust the end gate on the shaker is opened and work is shaken into pan perfectly dry and free of sawdust.

The handling of the small steel parts to be brass plated in the oblique barrels is somewhat different as the handling is not done mechanically.

Each batch of work is put into a hand basket made of nickel chromium wire and cleaned with current. The basket is hung into the cleaner and direct current thrown on for about 10 seconds then reversed for a minute or two during this time the basket is raised up and work shook around in order to bring center pieces to outer edge of basket as the cleaning action is not complete if the work nests.

Yellow brass parts to be nickel plated are much harder to clean due to the parafine oil on them. They are first soaked in another cleaner which is stronger than the electric cleaner for about 10 minutes then cleaned with current same as parts to be brass plated only that instead of one to two minutes with reverse current they are given from two to three minutes.

The solutions for nickel plating are made up of the prepared salts for barrel work and the brass solutions from the metal

There is one thing I would like to say in regard to the control of the brass solutions.

Previous to one year ago I used to make up stock solutions of Copper, Zinc and Cyanide separately and add from these what was lacking in the tanks, but had more or less trouble keeping solutions under control due to changing of employes on the tanks having a lot of trouble in this line. So about a year ago I made up a stock brass solution as follows:

Water 1 gallon
96%-98% Sodium Cyanide 9 ounces
Copper Cyanide 6 ounces
Zinc Cyanide 2 ounces
Soda Ash 2 ounces
Ammonium Chloride 2/3 ounce

Since adopting the stock brass solution the color has held up nicely. Whenever the color has a tendency to be off stock brass solution is added or when the solution in the tanks go down through loss and evaporation the same is added always with good results.

For anodes in brass tanks I have three curved copper anodes to fit around barrel and four straight brass anodes (Cast about 60% Copper and 40% of Zinc) on each side of tank. The work is plated 20 minutes. As I stated previously this class of work is finished between 8:30 and 12:00 noon and in order to keep up production from 25,000 to 50,000 pieces (depending on size) are finished daily.


January 27, 1927 (Read before Chicago Branch, January 27, 1927.)

There can be no question as to whether or not the control of acidity of nickel plating solutions is important. This is proved by the fact that in the days not so long ago litmus paper and congo paper shared honors with the hydrometer in rough and ready solution control. The old books, and some of the newer ones, postulate that correct solution acidity is that which causes blue litmus paper to turn slightly red, but does not affect white congo paper. The range thus covered is quite broad, being, under the best conditions, somewhere between pH 5 and pH 7, while under varying conditions, the range was even broader. The results were thus but approximations and often misleading.

The chief value of control of acidity, in conjunction with the control of other variables in nickel plating, is that it enables one to keep the solution uniformly correct at all times, and further, in case that trouble does develop, informs him that he must look elsewhere for the reason. This point may be illustrated by an account of some trouble experienced about a year ago in plating a small part made of nickel silver; the nickel plate on this base must be quite bright and tightly adherent since it is not buffed but tumbled in a revolving barrel with soap and water and steel balls until the proper finish is obtained, usually about one half hour. The plate to meet these conditions is obtained in an ordinary single salt solution of the following analysis:

Nickel sulphate 20-25 ounces per gallon
Nickel chloride 2 ounces per gallon
Sodium chloride 2 ounces per gallon
Boric acid 4 ounces per gallon
Magnesium sulphate 2 ounces per gallon

The pH is held between 5.6 and 5.8, while temperature takes care of itself, being between 65 degrees F. and 70 degrees F. For months 8,000 to 10,000 parts were plated daily without trouble- then rather suddenly the work started to come back because during the burnishing operation the nickel blistered and peeled. The adhesion was good enough to withstand ordinary buffing, but not good enough to survive the tumbling barrels. We knew that the solution could not be at fault—pH and the other important variables were under control just as they were before the trouble developed. The cleaner, a small one, was changed and varied several times without benefit; some of the parts were plated in other solutions to check against the presence of impurities not under control, but with equally poor results. Thus we were forced to look elsewhere for the cause of our trouble. Ultimately the reason for poorly adhering plate was found to be in an increase of from the original 10 per cent to 12 per cent in the nickel content of the nickel silver used. A combination cleaner and brass strike was substituted for the regular cleaner, and since that time no further trouble has been encountered. Without definite solution control we might not have solved the problem so readily and might still be puttering around, wonderingly.

It is, of course, impossible to control acidity accurately without some kind of a calibrated measuring stick. The measuring stick in the case of acidity is pH, just as the dollar is the measure of wealth. It is interesting to trace the development of this term and how it came to be used by the plater in the electrodeposition of nickel.

The symbol pH was invented and first used by Prof. S. P. L. Sorensen, biological chemist of the Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen in 1909, during the course of an investigation of effect of acidity on the activity of enzymes. Professor Sorenson was a pioneer researcher in this field, whose work is of great value. His study of hydrogen ion concentration determination methods, but chiefly his introduction of a simpler and more informative means of expressing hydrogen ion concentration—or acidity as the term is used in this paper—did much to stimulate research along similar lines. By his scale, still designated by the symbol pH, neutrality is indicated by pH 7. Larger numbers than this —pH 8-pH 9 mean increasing alkalinity while lower numbers pH 5-pH 4 mean increasing acidity.

Of the applications of the effect of acidity listed in Clark’s book in “The Determination of Hydrogen Ion Concentration” a few examples follow:

Acidity has been found to control to a large extent the growth and activity of bacteria; a study of soil pH has aided in the cultivation of the blueberry and in the propagation of wild flowers previously uncommon or unknown to garden and greenhouse; it has been found to influence the fermentation of beer and wine, and to correlate in general way with the acid taste of the latter. No mention was-made in his book of the role of acidity in the control of nickel solution, however.

The methods for determining pH are divided into two general classes, the electrode potential methods and the indicator methods. Up until a comparatively recent date, indicators were not extensively used because they were not standardized and because the solutions of definite pH necessary for comparison purposes were rather difficult to attain and maintain. In 1917 Clark and Lubs published a carefully studied list of indicators and the pH ranges over which their color changes are effective, thus eliminating one of the stumbling blocks in the way of the user of indicator method. The drop ratio method, which was developed in 1920 by Louis J. Gillespie of the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, did much to simplify the use of these indicators, inasmuch as it did away with the necessity for the carefully buffered comparison solutions mentioned a moment ago. All this work, done by Mr. Gillespie and others, however, was performed without thought of possible application to the nickel plating industry. It was in 1922 that M. R. Thompson, of the Bureau of Standards, showed how the drop ratio method could be applied to nickel plating solutions, and others, and established the values most suitable for different types of solutions. Since this time, largely through the efforts of Dr. Blum, the pH value have become more and more significant in solution control as the knowledge of its importance and easy determination has spread.

In the last two or three years several attempts have been made to apply the electrode potential method to the problem in hand. In 1924 Montillon and Cassell tentatively proposed the oxygen electrode; in 1925 the hydrogen electrode was investigated by William A. Mudge and found usable under special conditions; and in 1926, Parker and Green suggested the quinhydrone electrode. The three papers dealing with these electrodes were presented before the American Electrochemical Society. In his comment on the latter paper, Dr. Blum summed the situation in a way that may be extended to all three. He remarked that, while with proper manipulation, the quinhydrone electrode method would undoubtedly give more accurate values and therefore be useful in connection with research work, for the practical control of commercial plating solutions, the accuracy of .2 to .4 pH afforded by color comparison methods now available was quite adequate and much simpler to operate, the ability to match colors being the only requirement.

In spite of all the work that has been done, however, there is little practical information available. M. R. Thompson’s paper contains, as far as I am aware, the most complete definition of the best pH values and of the effect of acidity variations on nickel solutions of various types. Following is a summary of his findings taken from Blum and Hogaboom’s book on Electroplating and Electroforming, page 222.

The most favorable range for nickel plating is between pH 5.5 and pH 6.0.

(1) In general, good nickel plating deposits are produced when the cathode efficiency is high, i.e., when there is little hydrogen evolved (so-called gassing) at the cathode.

(2) Within the usual working range, the cathode current efficiency increases as the pH increases, up to about pH equals 6.

(3) For a constant pH, the cathode efficiency increases as the current density is raised, within certain limits, which later are dependent upon the type of solution used.

(4) Better deposits may be secured in a solution of low pH (high acidity) at relatively high than at a low current density.

(5) Where it is necessary to use a low current density, e.g., on irregularly shaped articles, the pH should be relatively high.

(6) Deposits made in a solution of low pH (high acidity) are likely to be finer grained, brighter and harder, but more brittle than those from solutions with high pH (low acidity).

(7) With any pH up to 4, the deposits are bright, but very likely to show excessive cracking and pitting. A pH of 4 is therefore the lower limit of good deposition.

(8) With any pH above 6.5 the deposits are dark, and cracking and curling are likely to occur. In a still solution it is difficult to obtain good deposits above pH 6.5. In agitated solutions, as in electrotyping, good deposits may be made up to nearly pH 7.

The only other discussion of pH values containing pH recommendations that we have encountered is that written by W. A. Taylor for the November, 1926 Brass World, page 346, entitled “Acidity Control in Nickel Bath.” His recommendations follow:

For nickel plating in still tanks 5.6 to 5.8
For barrel plating 6.0 to 6.2
For heated mechanical tank solution of high nickel content, to be operated at a high current density 5.2 to 5.4
For electroplating wax molds 6.4 to 6.8
For electroplating lead molds 6.0 to 6.4

Before discussing our practice it might be well to outline the magnitude of our plating room. About 15,000 gallons of nickel solution are in daily use, together with 4,000 gallons of cyanide copper and 4,000 gallons of cyanide zinc, 9,000 gallons of the nickel solution are contained in five mechanical tanks, while all the cyanide solutions are in such tanks. The amperage capacity of our generator is 15,000 amperes at 6 to 8 volts with one 5,000-ampere unit in reserve. Some 100,000 parts, exclusive of barrel plating are nickeled every day, while about 1,500,000 parts are barrel plated.

All solutions except those in the barrels have, up until a short time ago been analyzed daily for nickel content and pH, once a week for chlorides and once a month for boric acid and magnesium sulphate. Recently, however, the nickel and pH determinations were reduced to two a week; the standardization resulting from three years of close control render more frequent analyses unnecessary.

Our barrel plating solutions are not analyzed regularly as already mentioned; the pH on these ordinary double salt solutions, however, is usually between pH 5.8 and pH 6.1, by the Wedge Comparator Methods, Chlor-Phenol Red indicator. Since we have found different colorimetric methods to vary as much as 1 point on the pH scale, it seems advisable to mention the method used. We have also found small variations—.1-.3 pH with same method, depending upon the operator. Each operator has his own idea as to what matches. On the whole, however, this error is negligible. The statements here may seem to contradict those made a short time ago. However, once the correct pH for a given job is established, and everyone must to some extent work out his own optimum pH value, any method that will check itself consistently, so giving good comparative results, will answer the purpose. It is much nicer, of course, to be close to absolute accuracy but it is not indispensable to obtain results.

In the dealing with the larger solutions a mere statement of pH seems inadequate. There are many other factors which must be considered. It will be of more value, it is believed, if the solutions are treated more fully; if for no other reason than to relegate acidity to its proper place in the scheme of things.

The nickel plating of zinc base die castings (analysis: Zn 92%, Al %, Cu 3%) is for us a rather recent venture. In hunting through the literature a great mass of conflicting information was found. Some writers recommend copper strike before plating; some throw up their hands in horror at the thought and say, “No, use an acid dip instead”; some think an electric cleaner is best; some think an electric cleaner impossible. All manner of nickel solutions are recommended. Following is the procedure we found, after considerable experimentation, satisfactory for our purpose.

The work, on being received from the buff room, is dry wiped with cotton flannel. It is then racked up and cleaned by about two minutes of slushing up and down in a cleaner containing of 2 oz/gal of sodium carbonate of 2 oz/gal of trisodium phosphate. Temperature 160 deg. F., no current. The work is then rinsed in running water, then in a 2% sulphuric acid solution, then water, then into the nickel bath, where it is plated for 6 minutes at 6 volts, hanging from an oscillating cathode rod for 6 minutes. The current, of course, must be on before the work is introduced into the solution.

The nickel solution used is as follows:

Nickel sulphate 7 H2O 8.0 oz/gal
Nickel ammonium sulphate 6 H2O 8.0 oz/gal
Magnesium sulphate 7H2O 6.0 oz/gal
Sodium chloride 2.0 oz/gal
Sodium citrate 2.0 oz/gal
Boric acid 2.0 oz/gal
pH 6.0 oz/gal

Temperature of bath—room temperature, 65 to 70 deg. F. The work plated according to this procedure is uniformly free from burning, blistering, peeling and pitting.

For plating tin-coated steel:

In plating such work the pH adhered to is 5.4. This work is plated at a higher current density. The finish required on this work is second grade. The tin itself has so many defects that a few pits do not matter. The temperature ranges between 65 and 70. The solution analysis is practically that used for plating brass and for plating copper plated steel except the metal content is somewhat lower. A discussion of this solution follows:

For plating brass, and copper plated steel:

Approximately 10,000 gallons of nickel solution are devoted entirely to this kind of work. 8,000 gallons of this solution is contained in four lead-lined mechanical tanks equipped with a lead heating coil and a lead pipe air agitation system. Each tank is connected by means of a duriron pipe line to a large lead-lined steel storage tank into which the solution may be pumped while the plating tank is being cleaned out.
The solution as made up was that suggested by Professor Watts in 1916, in addition to which 4 ounces per gallon of magnesium sulphate was added. Through use this solution has been modified to suit our purpose more closely. The analysis rigidly maintained is as follows:

Nickel or 4.8-5.4 oz/gal
Nickel sulphate 7 H2O about 25 oz/gal
Chlorides 2 oz/gal, as chlorine
Magnesium-Sulphate 7 H2O 2.0 to 3.5 oz/gal
Boric acid 2.0 oz/gal
pH 5.6 to 5.8
Temperature 70 - 90 deg. F.
Current density 14 to 15 amp/sq. ft.


It is, of course, possible to speed up the operation of the tanks, in which case it would be advisable to increase the nickel content. However, this would not be practical at present; there is no point in operating a solution faster than work can be cleaned for it.

A report in regard to magnesium sulphate might not be amiss. The advantages noted to the magnesium sulphate are (1) a whiter, more easily shined plate, and (2) perhaps a contribution to our freedom from pitting.

For over a year, as a result of this close control, these solutions have given absolutely no trouble; pitting and allied troubles are unknown. Since our solution pHs are held practically constant we have had but little contact with the defects resulting from improper acidity content. In general it may be said that we prefer a comparatively high pH. We think that it is an important factor in elimination of pitting, and further, that the plate resulting is more easily buffed. It may be added here that the thickness of the average coating applied in our plating room is between .0001 inch and .001 inch. It seems evident that without the check on acidity afforded by means of pH determinations, close control of all the other factors involved would be futile, as far as freedom from trouble is concerned. But, were not the other variables also under control, pH control, however, careful, would be inadequate.

The writer wishes to acknowledge indebtedness to Mr. Danz, foreman, Western Clock Co. plating room. He contributed much in the way of information and advice.


Q. Mr. Wittig: Did I understand, in your revolving barrels you only have double salts?
A. Double salts. We tried the single, but the results were not so good; the nickel was rather dark.
Q. Mr. 21. J. Barrows: Did you use boric acid-in that last solution ?
A. If you are referring to the solution used for brass and copper plating on steel, yet. Boric acid runs, by analysis, around two ounces per gallon.
Q. Mr. Proctor: I would like to ask whether they have experimented with high magnesium solutions with fairly high single salts. In the East we find that we can use single salts to advantage and get good deposits when we use high magnesium solutions, and we have found that with a high metal concentration we are able to deposit nickel much faster than we can when we use double nickel salts.
A. We have tried no higher than four ounces per gallon.


Platinum Bath
Half ounce platinum dissolved in aqua regia, evaporate until syrupy, add one pint of water, then add saturated solution of ammonium phosphate until all platinum is precipitated. Boil until all ammonia is evaporated. Test with red litmus paper until it no longer turns blue. Then add one ounce phosphate of soda and one ounce pyrophosphate sodium. Add water to make one quart. Use at 180 degrees Fahrenheit, 5 to 6 volts.

Platinum No. 2
Dissolve 1.25 dwts. of platinum in aqua regia ( 1 oz. of hydrochloric acid to 3/4 oz. of nitric acid).

Boil and renew the aqua regia if necessary until the plati-num is dissolved. When all of the platinum has dissolved, boil down the solution until most of the acid is gone and a brown syrupy liquid is left. Do NOT allow it to dry out.

Weigh out 12 dwts. of ammonium phosphate and dissolve it in 2 oz. of boiling water. Pour this solution into the platinum solution and stir the mixture. (This will destroy the acid remaining with the platinum and give a thick light yellow mixture of platinum ammonium phosphate.)
Weigh out 80 dwts. of sodium phosphate crystals and dissolve in 3 oz. of water. It will be NECESSARY to boil the mixture to dissolve all of the sodium phosphate. While hot, this solution is poured into the platinum ammonium phosphate, and the whole mixture boiled down to 4 oz.

(Sodium phosphate can be bought as the dry salt, or in crystals. If the dry salt is used, weigh out 32 dwts. in place of the 80 dwts. of crystals. Containers of sodium phosphate crystals are either marked CRYSTALS or Na2HPO4 .12H2O.)

The above solution should be diluted with 6 or 7 times its volume of water before using.


O. F. Carlson, J. L. Mott Co., Trenton, N. J. (Read at Newark Branch)

The following is a description of methods being pursued in chromium plating plumbing supplies in the J. L. Mott plant at Trenton, N. J.

The equipment consists of an iron tank, acid-proof, porcelain enamel-lined, fitted with a hood connected with an exhaust fan to draw out the fumes, it is also fitted with a lead steam coil, and another lead pipe with 3/16-inch holes 2 inches apart from compressed air agitation, the anodes are lead strips 3/4 x 1/2-inch, 5 inches apart, and bolted and soldered to a heavy brass anode hook fitted with a set screw, so that a tight and permanent connection can be made with the anode rod.

It is equipped with a 600-amp. crown rheostat, with voltmeter and ammeter, also quick reading thermometer mounted on instrument board, with extension hanging in tank.

The solution is composed as follows:

Chromic acid, 33 oz.
Chromium sulphate, 0.4 oz.
Boracic acid, 1 oz. per gallon.
Current pressure, 7 to 9 volts.
Temperature, 115 to 120 deg. F.
Time of deposit, 6 to 7 minutes.

The current must be turned on all the time and connection quickly made, as the action of the solution without the current renders the surface passive.

The most important part of chromium plating successfully is the method of racking the work; the racks must be constructed so that the parts can be either screwed or forced tightly on the arms of the racks, and the hook of the rack fitted with a set screw, so that a tight connection with the rod can be made; allowance must be made for plenty of space between the parts, as they cannot be crowded, and we find that we get the best results by depositing direct on the brass, as giving a nickel strike does not improve the throwing power and shows a tendency to blister the nickel.

Meeting held Saturday evening, June 4th, in the downtown branch Y. M. C. A., with ten members present. The election of delegates to Toledo convention resulted as follows:
Delegates, Herman Peter, S. E. Hedden, E. S. Corbit. Alternates, Henry Wiesner and John Corbit. We expect to have at least 12 members going to Toledo from Pittsburgh, and possibly more, as all present were making plans to attend.
After a social hour, in which all took part, meeting adjourned, to meet Saturday evening, July 9th, when it is expected that the delegates to Toledo will we able to give a good account of themselves, as well as the doings of the convention at Toledo.
S. E. HEDDEN, Secretary.

The May meetings of the New York Branch were well attended. The both meetings were given over to the nominations and election of officers: The following were elected for the coming term:
President, Frank MacStocker; vice-president, Arthur Grinham; secretary-treasurer, Ralph Lignori; recording secretary, Thomas Gardner; sergeant-at-arms, Ben Nadel; assistant sergeant-at-arms, Charles Hanshalter; librarian, Elias Schorr; trustees, Fred Hanshalter, William Fisher, Joseph Menges; delegates to the Toledo convention, Frank MacStocker, George Wilson, Philip Morningstar; alternates, Anthony Knechtel, Arthur Grinham, William Fisher.
RALPH LIGNORI, Recording Secretary.

Regular monthly meeting, Rochester Branch, held May 20th, 1927, at the Powers Hotel.
Mr. J. J. Desmond, chief chemist, North East Electric Co., gave a very interesting talk on chromium plating. A general discussion followed.
The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, Raymond P. Lopez, vice-president, Charles Griffin, secretary-treasurer, Sylvester P. Gartland; librarian, Thomas Harper. Delegates to the Fifteenth Annual Convention: F. C. Mesle, supreme president; R. P. Topez, S. P. Gartland.
We had the pleasure of a visit from our friend, Dr. William Blum, who spoke at the Chamber of Commerce before the superintendent group on chromium plating.
A number of our plants have installed chromium-plating baths and judging by the samples on display at our last meeting they are meeting with success.
At our next regular meeting June 17th we will have a report on the number of members who will attend the convention at Toledo, Ohio. SYLVESTER P. GARTLAND, Secretary-Treasurer.

Regular monthly meeting and annual smoker of Chicago Branch held June 11th, 1927, at Atlantic Hotel.
Meeting was called to order with President Jacob Hay, presiding and a very large attendance.
After the regular routine of business, the electing of Mr. Wm. H. Hanson to active membership and the application of Mr. Elburn L. Fish referred to an investigating committee, the president called upon Mr. Frank J. Hanlon to act as master of ceremonies with the assistance of Mr. R. J. Hazucaha as marshall to install the newly-elected officers which are as follows:
President--Robt. Meyer.
Vice-President—R. J. Kelley.
Secretary-Treasurer--Samuel J. C. Trapp, 1127 N. Seventh Ave., Maywood, Ill.
Librarian--R. E. Lewis.
Board of Managers--Cyril Kocom, F. L. Greenwald and Henry Lanz.
The newly-installed president was then presented with the gavel who proceeded to call upon several of the old-timers and past presidents for a few remarks of encouragement.
Mr. Jack Geisman was requested to sing a few of his favorite songs which were enjoyed by all.
Music was furnished by the Benson entertainers who also led in community singing..
Owing to the late hour the question box was held over until next meeting.
The evening was enjoyed by everyone and the harmony and good fellowship shown bears watching for Chicago Branch to have a banner year.
All together boys, here we go for a steady stride forward.

June meeting was well attended and a very lively discussion on chrome plate seemed to keep the boys guessing as how to plate large flat pieces ranging from 14 to 20 inches square. Seemed to have trouble getting the centers covered but with all the suggestions offered no doubt someone will bring us something at our next meeting at any rate quite a few members promised to attend the Toledo convention to see if they might brush up a bit on the subject; The proposed structive talk on chrome plating. We were further surprised by Clarence Van Deran from Mansfield, Ohio, who also gave us a talk Chrome plating in large production. Both speakers were interesting ad all who attended received considerable experience, as both of these men know how to put it over. We also had a very good talk by Mr. Jones from the Westinghouse plant of Mansfield, Ohio, who gave a very good talk on inspection. Mr. Jones put this over very good, as he is the chief inspector of the Westinghouse plants and sure knows his job. The speakers were given a rising vote of thanks. Meeting adjourned at a late hour.
Following is results of election held May 7, 1927:
President, Wm. Hohman; Vice-President, Jacob Zwisler; Secretary Treasurer, R. G. Suman. Board of Managers: Walter Fraine, Wm. Brandt, H. J. Harter. Delegates to Convention: Walter Fraine, Clarence Van Deran, R. G. Suman. Alternates: Wm. Hohman, Ira Van Pelt, H. J. Harter. ROBERT G. SUMAN, Secretary.

Regular monthly meeting Chicago Branch, A. E. S., held May 14 1927, Atlantic Hotel. The meeting was called to order, with President Jacob Hay presiding, and a very large attendance.
Mr. H. A. Gilbertson, Chairman of the Booster Committee, reported that the New York Central Railroad has agreed to put on a special car for the members of Chicago Branch and their friends who wish to attend the Toledo (Ohio) Convention. Notices as to the time, etc., have been sent out to the members and manufacturers to this effect.
Our annual election of officers was held at this meeting. The results were as follows: President, R. Meyers; Vice-President, Roy Kelley; Secretary-Treasurer, Samuel Trapp; Librarian, O. E. Servis. These offices were elected by acclamation. Board of Managers: Cyril Kocour. F. .L. Greenwald, Henry Lanz. Considerable interest was shown in the election of the Board of Managers, the first returns resulting in a tie, and the second returns were very closely contested.
Delegates to Newark Convention: F. J. Hanlon, Jacob Hay, R. Meyers. Alternates: O. E. Servis, P. L. Greenwald, Samuel Trapp.
Mr. Erwin Sohn of the Pittsburg Branch; also Mr. Blitz of Milwaukee Branch and E. V. Allen were visiting with us.

The balance of the evening was given over to the question box.
Question 1: My cadmium plating water stains. How can I prevent it ?
Answer: Work should be dipped in whale oil soap, rinsed in cold water, dry in oven. Selicate of soda was also suggested.
Question 2: What addition do you make to an old silver solution to make it plate a pearl white?
Answer: Reduce cyanide or add metal. High cyanide content was thought to cause it to be off color.
Question 3: How can you increase throwing power of chromium plating solution ?
Answer: By adding an iron salt was suggested.

ROBERT MEYERS, Secretary-Treasurer.



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