Presented in Partnership with:


Published by the American Electroplaters Society

Publication and Editorial Office 3040 Diversey Ave., Chicago

VOL. XIV OCTOBER, 1927 No. 10


Why are only 25 per cent of the men in the American Electro-Platers Society members in name only?

At the institution of this Society it was a one-man job, with one Branch in a large City, but now with 22 Branches in 22 large Cities it has become a committee problem, and the duties of these different committees, who report to you monthly, semi-annually and annually at your meetings, takes them away from their families many nights when you members are at HOME and enjoying yourself, yet these self-sacrificing members’ chief worry is why do not more of our members attend our meetings.

In the average Branch of our Society only 30 per cent of the members ever attend the meetings and only 20 per cent of those ever enter the discussions and debates, therefore are not becoming interested in the material things they joined the Society for, and wonder why they don’t get- the kick out of the meetings the Officers and committeemen do.

Our monthly Branch Meetings, the Annual Meeting of the Society, and all the committee meetings are always interesting due to the fact they are for the progress of our Society, its members and the Industry which makes it possible to live and enjoy ourselves. It affords our beloved ones the pleasures of life, yet why do we renege when it comes to going to meetings. Have we lost that feeling of individual responsibility or that allegiance to the profession that is our chosen lifework.

The American Electro-Platers Society membership should mean more than just wearing a button and paying our dues, and expecting to obtain a lucrative position because of these facts. It will mean more if you do your part in the attendance of the meetings and take part in the discussions, that you are a part of an organization of the best informed men in your Industry and due to this fact you will be sought after for better things. Our Industry is developing machinery faster than it develops men. How can any member in this Society justify his lack of interest, with the many new inventions being introduced to expedite Electro-Deposition.

Instead of lamenting your lack of ability to debate, using the best orators in our Society for examples, why not pick upon someone of less ability than yourself and then practice until you can trim the best. Last but not least, if things are not coming your way, why get faint-hearted and quit. Just change you WAY and live to smile another DAY.


Those who wish to properly present the status or condition of a particular industry in a foreign land and to follow the progress which has been made in that field within a reasonable period, must first revert to the causes for the establishment of such enterprise to trace the influences which have affected the development of the business up to the present time.

For generations the Japanese people have been natural born metal-workers. There was scarcely any kind of metal ornamentation or decoration, with the exception of electro-plating and its related branches of electro-deposition, which they had not known and practiced before the opening of the country to foreign commerce. In these accomplishments they had won the admiration of the world and their skillful art conceptions were notably the most costly which could be procured.

Shortly after Japan opened her first port, Yokohama, to foreign intercourse, in 1858, and sent her first embassy abroad, her scholars flocked to institutions of learning in all the leading countries of the world, to observe the methods and means which had contributed so vastly to their industrial supremacy, and they returned, as they are doing at the present moment, with such information as has enabled them, within the span of a lifetime, to rank their nation among the powers of the world.

In regular course, electro-plating was introduced, and while no material advancement in the art can be pointed to as attributable to the Japanese, it must be said that they have applied the results of scientific research from without with a hawk-eyed or meticulous accuracy.

The electro-plating done in Japan is almost exclusively for home consumption. A small part of the production, however, reaches Korea, her mainland possession, and China. While the quality of the products is, in general, quite good, it is unlikely that they shall challenge Western goods for many years to come.

In the United States it is acknowledged that the manufacture of automobiles represents the greatest single application of plating and polishing. In Japan, on the other hand, bicycles and rickshaws create the biggest demand for electro-plating work. Aside from the manufacture of these, which are the business barometers in the metal-finishing field, most of the other work is produced in so-called job shops, where quantity and diversified production can reduce the overhead costs.

Modern plating plants in Japan are not noticeably different from those in the United States or England. Some distinguishing features, however, are obvious. Steam is seldom used to heat cleaning or plating baths. The cleaning pots, which are actually large cast-iron rice kettles, are heated by direct flame. Plating solutions are warmed by a little stove which is submerged in the tank except for the smoke stack, and fed with coal or coke through a small door cut into the tank on one end. Very little accurate temperature control is exercised in any case. Only a few cyanide copper or zinc solutions are used, for the platers believe, generally, that acid solutions are far more serviceable and less hazardous.

Notwithstanding this seemingly antiquated practice, agitated solutions, plating barrels, parallel type rheostats for tanks, and many other up-to-date agencies are employed.

With more than sixty million inhabitants in a territory about two-thirds the size of the United States, it stands to reason that little attempt is made to install labor-saving devices, or other high-priced machinery. No automatic conveyors, automatic polishing and buffing machines or other of the later inventions are therefore used, and these would in all probability be frowned upon the same as motor trucks, donkey engines and the like, which tend to supplant manual labor and deprive the coolie of his hire.

The Japanese have, with slight alteration, adopted foreign names for plating materials. For instance, they speak of tripoli as toripili, of buffs as bafu, etc., and this fact has contributed largely to the rapidity with which they have been able to keep astride of the latest changes and improvements. In addition to this, they have organized electro-plating societies which convene monthly in the larger cities, and to which even the least important delver in the profession feels it is his obligation to belong. Groups of these smaller platers further unite themselves into a co-operative society.

Within the past few years the Japanese Government has taken an interest in the furtherance of the science of electroplating and has granted several loans and concessions to private enterprises which make it a point to report the progress of their work and to put to test new ideas as they are brought forward. This is in accord with the Government’s ideas to effect industrial independence and preparedness.

It is interesting to note also that the Japanese have initiated plans to establish a branch of the American Electro-Chemical Society at the Engineering College of the Imperial University in Tokyo, under the direction of Professor Yoshikiyo Oshima, to discuss the transactions of the Mother Society in America and to encourage the presentation of papers of their own; Many Japanese scientists have already made valuable contributions to the General Meetings of the American Society, but as yet the platers themselves, who in most cases are non technical, have published no literature on the subject.

Custom plays a big part in the habits of the people and they are not readily swayed or converted from long established practice. Indisputable facts and convictions which have so often been responsible for the complete revamping of comparatively modern plants in America, are not sufficient to warrant even the slightest deviation from tried and true methods in Japan. The people are astonishingly skeptical and in the inverse ratio to which they are curious. New methods, new products and new apparatus are accepted only where competition compels them to be.

The desires of the native Oriental are the direct antithesis of Western taste. This can be ascribed to the history of the race, treating of their long seclusion, the religious inclinations, and to their inborn militaristic temperament. Anything glitteringly ostentatious such as personal decorations, private possessions or even the fittings of shrines and temples, makes a strong appeal to them. They have a penchant, therefore, for gilded objects, oxidized silvers and lacquer wares, black nickel and other finishes which can be effectively produced on objects of unusual design.

Lacquer work undoubtedly occupies a premier place in the various branches of the Japanese art industry, and so widespread is the fame of the varnish or lacquer employed that “japanned” or “to japan” has long since been current in the English language.

To a foreigner, it is peculiar to see ordinary cheap nickel plated soap boxes coated on the inside with a plate of gold. The Japanese, however, who buys these necessities in the bric-a-brac shops would turn away if the interior of the boxes were not so adorned, for it is conventional of the country that the inside of things must be more excellent than the outside.

Chromium plating is also commanding great concern on the Island, and there is actually more interest taken in its possibilities and further uses than was manifested in the United States early in 1926. At the present time there is a greater demand for chromium plated jewelry in Japan than for any of the precious metals. Many prominent people are wearing chromium plated watches, spectacles, and rings; and the Emperor is having the service ware of the Imperial Household done in Chromium for the Inauguration ceremonies in Kyoto.

Considered collectively, the Japanese people are industrious, but their capacity for volume production is small. Contrasted with the cost of skilled labor in the United States, the average wage of a Japanese shop foreman is perhaps, at maximum, one-eighth, or Y3.00 per day, the equivalent of $1.50 gold. This is greater than is found in most European countries, including some parts of Great Britain.

Generally speaking, electro plating in Japan is a comparatively young industry. Unlike its sister industry in America, it has not yet come into its own, nor is it to be supposed that it will, for some time to come, achieve the same prominence, because the Japanese have neither the production nor the funds to enable them to continuously carry on investigations and researches for their practical and truly scientific value. They will, however, continue to follow closely and imitate the methods pursued in the West with a view of some day bidding for a place in the world’s markets and disposing of their wares, which, through imitative faculty, craftsmanship and a highly developed sense of the beautiful, they will elevate to an unusually high degree of artistic excellence.



By W. P. Barrows

(Research Associate of the American Electroplaters Society at the Bureau of Standards)Oct. 1, 1927.

During the past two years the American Electroplaters Society has collected a Research Fund, based principally upon three year subscriptions, usually of $50 per annum, from manufacturers and from branches of the Electroplaters Society. Up to date about $7,000 has been collected, of which about $2,500 was received from manufacturers of builders’ hardware for the specific purpose of studying “spotting-out.” This problem was therefore undertaken first. As funds permit, other phases of electroplating will be investigated.

The study of spotting-out was started on January 15, 1927, by W. P. Barrows, formerly a member of the Bureau staff. Visits were made to numerous plants during February, April and August, and information and samples were obtained. Laboratory studies have been conducted upon the causes and remedies of one type of this defect. This report is a brief summary of the principal facts and conclusions thus far derived from this investigation. The facts are definite, at least for the conditions employed; but the conclusions are necessarily tentative, as new facts that may be subsequently learned in the laboratory or plant may modify these conclusions. Pending further work that is in progress, no definite recommendations are warranted.

At least two types of spotting-out may be distinguished. The first kind, which will be referred to as “crystal spots,” occurs on “oxidized,” or more strictly speaking “sulfide” finishes. These spots have a “dendritic” (tree-like) structure, that is easily recognized, especially with a lens or microscope. These form the principal subject of this report. The other type may be referred to as “stain spots,” as they consist of irregular discolored areas, that are most likely to be formed on cast metals. These will be studied later.

In order to obtain definite and reproducible data on’ the factors involved in the formation of these spots, methods of accelerating the spotting-out were first developed. In general these involved the storage of the specimens in a confined space (usually a glass dessicator) in the presence of some -accelerating agent, such as sulfur, rubber, or certain types of paper. By placing in the same vessel samples that had been subjected to different treatments, and noting the time required for spots to appear, the effects of such factors as cleaning, plating, rinsing, coloring and lacquering, were determined. By varying the atmosphere in the different dessicators, the effects of storage conditions could be compared.

The time required for the appearance of crystal spots that could be detected with the unaided eye, varied greatly in different experiments, but was roughly reproducible. Thus under the most accelerated conditions, e. g., with sulfur or rubber present, such spots were observable in from one to three days. Conditions less favorable for spotting, such as in the presence of certain papers, caused the spots to appear in from one to four weeks. Whenever it is stated that no spotting occurred, this means that no spots could be detected in periods from three to six months.

The first appearance of spots was no necessary indication that the samples then had such an unsatisfactory surface as to be objectionable commercially. The rate at which the spots increased both in size and number determined the time when they could be classed as commercially unacceptable.

The experiments thus far conducted have yielded the following facts and tentative conclusions:

(1) Crystal spots occur only in finishes that contain sulfur, such as the “oxidized” finishes on copper or brass, and the black nickel finish containing sulfur.

(2) These spots do not appear on bright or relieved parts of the copper or brass unless some sulfide is still present. e. g., if it has been incompletely relieved.

(3) Crystal spots appear only on sulfide finishes that have been lacquered. Unlacquered specimens may tarnish, but do not spot out.

(4) Sulfide finishes on surfaces plated with copper or brass, show just the same tendency to spot out as those produced directly on solid copper or brass.

(5) The composition of the base metal beneath the plated surface has no effect on the tendency to form crystal spots. (The rusting of a steel base through pores in a plated coating, represents a form of stain spots, and should not be confused with the crystal spots.)

(6) The alkaline cleaners, acid dips, plating solutions, or coloring solutions used in preparing the finish, have no necessary relation to crystal spots. These also form on copper that has been “oxidized” with hydrogen sulfide, without coming in contact with any liquid except water.

(7) Powdered sulfur and rubber, such as rubber bands which contain free sulfur, when in contact with the lacquered, “oxidized” metal, markedly accelerate crystal spotting. This is a convenient method of producing such spots. Sulfur vapor accelerates the spotting, approximately in proportion to its concentration. Hydrogen sulfide also accelerates the spotting but less so than does free sulphur. Sulfur dioxide does not produce spots, but causes etching and tarnishing, especially at high humidities.

(8) Some kinds of paper used for wrapping undoubtedly accelerate the spotting, but to a less degree than to sulfur or hydrogen sulfide. Experiments are in progress to determine whether the effects of such papers are due to their possible sulfur content or to physical properties such as permeability.

(9) Variation of the humidity from zero to 90 per cent in the dessicators, had little effect upon the accelerating action of sulfur on spotting-out. Further studies will be needed to fully explain the fact that more spotting-out is observed in the plants in the hot, humid months.

(10) Sulfide finishes exhibit a definite, but less marked, tendency to spot out even in the absence of external sulfur or other accelerating agencies. At ordinary temperature (70° to 90° F.) this tendency of the finishes to spot out of themselves is less at high humidities (90 per cent) than at moderate humidities (50 to 70 per cent).

(11) The presence of air is apparently necessary for the production of these crystal spots. Specimens in a vacuum in close contact with sulfur, showed no such spots, though the sulfur attacked the finish where the lacquer was scratched or broken. Presumably the oxygen of the air is the active constituent in causing the crystal spots. It is well known that lacquer coatings are not impervious to oxygen or other gases.

(12) If both sulfur and oxygen are necessary for the crystal spots, it is not surprising that they may form when no other external accelerating agent such as sulfur is present, - as the-coating contains the sulfur, and air may pass through the lacquer.

(13) Sulfide finishes with several coats of lacquer show some decreased tendency toward spotting, but the improvement is hardly sufficient to warrant the increased expense.

(14) Efforts were made to decrease the spotting-out by preparing lacquer containing such oils as bodied linseed, tung, fish and mineral oils. Lacquers containing bodied linseed oil greatly decrease the tendency toward spotting-out, but unfortunately they increase the tendency of the finish to tarnish, especially at high humidities. Their use can not therefore be recommended.

From the above facts it appears that it may be possible to prevent or at least reduce the tendency for crystal spotting, by (a) excluding sulfur from the finish itself; (b) excluding sulfur or injurious sulfur compounds from the surroundings; and (c) excluding air or oxygen from the finish. Of these, (a) would involve changes in manufacturing processes, which while possible, might involve great expenses and delay Remedy (b) may be accomplished by keeping the articles during manufacture, storage and transportation, away from sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, rubber, or other materials that may yield sulfur or volatile sulfides. Course (c) might be carried out by treating the surface so as to produce a film more impervious to air than the lacquer film. Experiments that are now in progress indicate, that if even a very thin film of a grease such as petrolatum is applied to the lacquered surface the tendency to crystal spotting is decreased.

Further experiments will be conducted the laboratory to check the above conclusions, and especially the feasibility and value of various possible remedies. Arrangements will then be made for a number of plants to try under commercial conditions the most promising procedures. It will therefore be at least a few months before definite recommendations can be made.

As soon as feasible a study of the stain spots will be undertaken.


The tumbling machine for grinding and ball burnishing small parts that are turned, stamped or cast, is taking its place among the pillars in the plating industry.

We find by adopting these machines, much time can be saved in finishing the small delicate parts that are inconvenient to handle individually in polishing and buffing. In place of each piece being handled separately, each lot is handled at a time.

These machines are unique in that very little attention is required for their operation. It merely consists of one placing the parts that are to be finished in the containers or barrels, which they really are, and with the addition of the necessary ingredients to acquire the proper finish, closing the barrels and starting the machine. Allow it to be in motion for a period of from 1 to 3 hours, after which the parts are removed and ready to be rinsed.

The two barrels on these machines in which the process takes place are iron, wood, or in many cases both. Each has its function to perform in the finishing of the parts, and one must select the proper barrel for the work. By the use of the duplex barrels two separate operations or lots can be worked on during the same period of time.

The iron barrel is best suited for the first operation, a grinding to remove the burrs, sharp edges and to smoothen the pieces up. The wooden barrel is preferred for the ball burnishing of the parts prior to and after the plating operation. The grinding in the iron barrel requires, in many cases, more time than the burnishing, which, however, is governed by the condition of the parts entering the machine and the degree of smoothness required for finish.

These machines do not rotate at a great rate of speed to prevent centrifugal action inside the barrel which would retard the action that takes place.

Each barrel has a capacity for about 200 pounds of compact small parts. Often the addition of the burnishing balls and solution is equal in weight to twice that of the parts being worked upon.

There are three functions performed on the machines known as grinding, ball burnishing and finishing.

The first is accomplished by adding to the iron barrel in which the parts are placed, one pound of Lionite and one pint of water, and allowed to be put in motion from 1 to 3 hours. This is followed by washing out the Lionite solution and replacing it w-ith about 1 pound of rottenstone and a pint of water and again allowed to rotate for a period of 1 to 3 hours. The grinding necessary to get a suitable finish determines the length of time for the rotating operation.

The second or ball burnishing operation follows by removing the parts from the iron barrel and washing. The parts are then placed into the wooden barrel and about twice the amount of burnishing balls are added, together with a molasses solution, and the machine is then put in operation for 1 to 2 hours.

The molasses solution is made for stock because of the aging necessary for a few days to get proper results, by a mixture of one part molasses to four parts of water. When the solution is being used in the machine it is thinned a second time by adding 20 parts of water to one part of the stock.

The parts are now removed from the barrel and passed over a screen to separate the burnishing balls and solution, making them ready to enter the plating operations.

The third or finish operation in the barrel is the coloring of the parts after the plating has taken place. This is done by repeating the second operation for a period of about 15 minutes, when the parts are removed, screened, rinsed and dried.

H. SCHULDT, Toledo Branch.


By T. A. Gardner

In presenting this paper upon the subject of antique and bronze finishes I do so with the realization that possibly the formulas used and the procedure in producing the finishes are not new to many of our members.

The bronzing and coloring of metals, however, is always an interesting subject, because it is the real art in the plating industry.

Just as the real artist, when he paints his masterpiece applied to canvas, must be a true student of nature, so that he can reproduce the beauties of nature in all of her splendid colors and tints of light and shade, so in a like manner the colorer and bronzer of metals must follow similar ideals if he is to be master in his profession.

Fortunately I am so situated that I have to produce a great variety of finishes, so have considerably more time to experiment than many of our members, whose vocation only permits them to produce deposits of the commercial metals, without any necessity of coloring or bronzing the basic metal surfaces they have to plate for their employers’ trade.

It is the aim of my firm to produce quality in finishes rather than quantity production, so somewhat more tine can be used in production of finishes than with a product that is much lower in cost. Our product is the Emeralite Electric Lamp known all over the entire world for the wonderful emerald light it gives that is so restful to the eyes.

I have designated the finishes I present to you as samples by the numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; they are produced in the following solution by immersion and manipulation:

Solution No. 1—
Water 1 gallon
Copper Sulphate 4 ounces
Single Nickel Salts 25 ounces
Potassium Chlorate 12 ounces
Ferrous Sulphate of Iron 4 ounce
Temperature: 180 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit.

The articles to be finished if of other metals than copper and brass must be finished and plated with such metals.

In the production of several of the colors that require a copper surface it is advisable, if of brass or steel, etc., to finally plate in an acid copper solution, using the copper cyanide solution to cover the metal first.

For all light-toned colors, after immersing in the bronzing dip and thoroughly washing in cold water, scratch brush wet, use a little powdered pumice stone mixed with the water. It may require several immersions in the bronze solution and rebrushing to produce a distinct color.

The final brushing, however, should be done dry, so the articles must be thoroughly dry before the final scratch brushing. For this operation use a soft crimped brass wire scratch brush not more than four inches in diameter.

When dark tones are desired, it is advisable not to use any pumice stone. In the brushing operations, scratch brush wet, two or three immersions in the bronzing solution may be necessary.

Finally scratch brush dry, then lacquer as usual by air spray, brush or dip, then when the lacquer is dry, finally wax with a beeswax paste and finish to a lustre known as the “Egg Shell Finish” with a soft cotton or woolen cloth.

To product a black finish upon brass, the following solution gives very satisfactory results:

Solution No. 2—
Water 1 gallon
Copper Sulphate 4 ounces
Single Nickel Salts 1/2 ounces
Ammonium Chloride 1 ounce
Copper Acetate 14 ounces
Potassium Chlorate 1 ounce
Sodium Hyposulphite 2 ounces
Temperature: 180 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit.

Proceed as previously stated. As to procedure, however, use no pumice stone as an abrasive. Final brushing dry, then lacquer and wax as previously stated.

For the verdigris tone use chrome green as may be required. There are several shades of chrome greens, light, medium and dark. The chrome greens may be mixed with- a little linseed oil and a small amount of turpentine copal varnish as a binder.

The mixture will not affect the lacquer. It is advisable always to apply the pigment colors to the articles when the lacquered surface is thoroughly dry. The pigment colors can be readily removed from the high lights with a soft cotton cloth moistened with a mixture of equal parts of turpentine and linseed oil. Finally wipe the articles dry and clear with clean cloth.

For the production of antique greens direct upon brass from light to dark, with a smut of lighter green in the crevices and backgrounds, use the following solution:

Solution No. 3—
Water 1 gallon
Single Nickel Salts 1-3 ounces
Sodium Hyposulphite 6 ounces
Temperature: 180 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit.

Dry scratch brushing, lacquering and waxing is all the procedure required in final finishing after the desired color is produced in the bronzing dip.

No. 6 Finish is produced by running the articles through a solution composed of

Solution No. 4—
Sulphuric Acid 1 1/2 gallons
Potassium Bichromate 1 pound
Temperature: Normal.

The articles should remain in the solution for a maximum of five minutes, then remove them, wash thoroughly in cold and boiling-hot waters.

Then immerse in Solution No. 1 or in the following:

Solution No. 5—
Water 1 gallon
Copper Sulphate 3 ounces
Single Nickel Salts 2 ounces
Ferrous Iron Sulphate 1/8 ounce
Potassium Chlorate 1 1/4 ounces
Lead Acetate 1/2 ounce
Sodium Hydroxide 1/4 ounce
Temperature: 180 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit.

Method of finishing as previously outlined. No Pumice Stone, however, to be used in finishing operations.

You can obtain an excellent black bronze from Solution No. 4.

The No. 7 Finish is obtained from same methods as No. 6; only after you obtain your brown cut through finish in different places same as we used to do with spotted copper. Then back to solution again and then, when solution goes on brass it makes the green finish.

The brass spinning with the high lights or No. 8 is run through the green dip composed of:

Water 1 gallon
Copper Sulphate 4 ounces
Single Nickel Salts 4 1/2 ounces
Potassium Chlorate 1 ounce
Iron Sulphate 1/8 ounce

After you get your green then dry buff on soft wheel and put back in solution again.

No. 9 is a common finish but requires a little practice to get it right. We cut them down first, then brush with water and pumice and bronze in the following solution:

Water 10 gallons
Polysulphide Liquid Sulphur or Sulphuret of Potassium 1 ounce
Temperature: 180 degrees Fahrenheit.

After washing thoroughly in water then follow up by acid solution:

Water 10 gallons
Sulphuric Acid 3 ounces
Nitric Acid 1 ounce

After immersing the articles in the acid dip for a maximum of 3 to 5 minutes, then wash thoroughly in cold and boiling water and dry out. Finally scratch brush dry as previously outlined and then lacquer as usual.

The bronze base as per sample No. 10 is made of antimony, lead, and a 5 to 6 per cent of aluminum. We cut these down, brush with pumice, and water, and put into brass solution which is composed of copper cyanide, zinc cyanide, sodium cyanide, liquid ammonia, ammonium carbonate, maintained low in free cyanide and run for 1 1/2 to 2 hours. If we copper-plate these bases, we always get a nice lot of blistered work, so therefore we omit copper. The last finish is the gold or what we call O/G finish. This gold lacquer is something which I have prepared myself after trying to get a satisfactory lacquer elsewhere. It is prepared from Dragon’s Blood and gamboge, cut down with alcohol.

I trust you have not grown tired listening to my paper, but hope some one will benefit by it; then I will think my efforts have been amply repaid.

If anyone cares for additional information, I shall be glad to give them such information after the meeting is over.


An effective paint and varnish remover can now be made by a process discovered by Max Phillips and M. J. Goss, chemists of the Bureau of Chemistry, who have just completed an investigation on the utilization of para cymne, which comes from an oil obtained as a by-product in making paper pulp from wood.

The oil from which the new paint and varnish remover is made was until recently almost wholly an economic waste. It has been variously estimated that from 750,000 to 2,000,000 gallons of this material are annually produced in the sulphite pulp mills of the United States. The paint and varnish remover is prepared by mixing para cymne with grain alcohol, methanol, and acetone, in equal parts by volume.

The most effective method for removing paint and varnish is to apply the new remover to the surface to be treated, and after three to five minutes the softened paint or varnish may be very easily removed by means of a scraper. This remover has been patented by Phillips and Goss and dedicated to the people of the United States.—Ind. and Eng. Chem.

“I left my dad, his farm, his plow,
Because my calf became his cow;
I left my dad—’twas wrong, of course
Because my colt became his horse.
I left my dad to sow and reap
Because my lamb became his sheep;
I dropped my hoe and stuck my fork,
Because my pig became his pork.
The garden truck I had to grow
Was his to sell and mine to hoe."




The information contained in this site is provided for your review and convenience. It is not intended to provide legal advice with respect to any federal, state, or local regulation.
You should consult with legal counsel and appropriate authorities before interpreting any regulations or undertaking any specific course of action.

Please note that many of the regulatory discussions on STERC refer to federal regulations. In many cases, states or local governments have promulgated relevant rules and standards
that are different and/or more stringent than the federal regulations. Therefore, to assure full compliance, you should investigate and comply with all applicable federal, state and local regulations.